Please choose the Stanford Prison Experiment o and within 2-3 pages, please type up an analysis of whether the experiment did or did not follow the three ethical principles of the Belmont Report:Respect for persons: Individuals should be treated as autonomous.Beneficence: Individuals should be protected from harm and should have their well-being maintained.Justice: There should be a “fairness of distribution” among subjects and potential subjects of theburdens and benefits of researchNotes:Stanford prison experiment●Dr. Zimbardo had to stop the experiment early.○Subjects actually became too caught up in their roles.■Guards became aggressive and verbally abusive.■Some guards exhibited fits of rage.■Prisoners became passive.■Some wept uncontrollably.○The danger to the subjects was not just psychological, but physical as well.○Video (no captions available):https://exhibits.stanford.edu/spe/catalog/fd396xq4047○Video Transcript:https://exhibits.stanford.edu/spe/catalog/vw274py0621Unintended consequences of research●There is research that may seem innocent, but can be potentially damaging to asubject’s sense of self-esteem and self-worth.○Self-esteem and anxiety■Exposing aspects of someone that they would rather have concealed.■Encouraging reflection on past events that the subject has tried to forget.■Revealing the subject’s ignoranceUnintended consequences of research●Surveys are powerful, but caution must be exercised.○Researchers must consider the potential psychological harm that a survey or question could inflict.■Examples:●Questions exposing a subject’s prejudice toward some particular group could lead to aloss of a subject’s self-image.●A series of questions about current events could be stressful to someone who is ignorant of such events.●Asking questions about painful past experiences, like failed relationships, child abuse,etc, can also produce anxiety for the subjectGood research practices■Respondents should always feel free to decline to participate.■Even if they have already agreed to participate, they should feel free to refuse any question they find objectionable.■It is the job of the researcher to inform respondents of this freedom●Inequalities are often difficult to avoid completely, so researchers have to be keen to minimize them as much as possible.○Unequal benefits or burdens■Experiments: there is often the experimental group (who gets something extra) and the control group (who gets nothing special—like a placebo).○Minimizing inequality■Objective: make the inequalities as minimal and as random as possible.Deception in research●Social Scientists often conduct covert research.○The trick is to balance the need for deception with the rights of the subjects.○Observing individuals or elected officials in a public place or a public forum.○Keeping the true intentions of one’s research hidden from the respondents, or only telling them part of the reasons for conducting the research.●Some scholars argue that all deception in research is unethical.○Others claim that some level of deception may be necessaryScientific safeguards●There are several safeguards in place that can help to ensure the safety of subjects.○Institutional Review Boards (IRB)○Informed Consent○Debriefing○Anonymity and Confidentiality●Institutional Review Boards (IRB):○Mandated by all institutions that receive federal funding for research. All research regarding human subjects must be submitted for review by the IRB.○If you are tinkering with people, their minds, feelings, attitudes, etc, then you need to get the IRB tookay your project●Informed Consent○Informs the subjects (prior to their consent to participate) of the purpose of the study, the type ofinformation being requested, who is conducting the study, and the risks involved.○Generally this is a form spelling out the purpose of the research, risks, etc, and states an agreementby the subject to participate in the research●Debriefing○Mitigates the problem of deception by explaining to the subjects after the experiment is over aboutthe nature of the experiment.○Basically, this is where you as the researcher come clean about any deception that you use●Anonymity○The researcher cannot link the information provided with the person who provides it. Researchers have no way of knowing who participated.●Confidentiality○Information exists to link the results with a particular respondent. The researcher promises to holdthis information in confidence.
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