Ten Questions for Global Catastrophes and Trends

Please answer all of them.

1.Identify fundamental shifts in human affairs that come [a]as low probability events that could in an instant “change everything”, catastrophic events, [b] and as persistent, gradually unfolding trends that have no less far-reaching impacts in the long term, unfolding trends.

2.Please explain: [a] known catastrophic risks, [b] plausible catastrophic risks, [c] speculative risks

3.Identify “imaginable surprises” and explain them.

4.Identify the epoch-making technical developments that took place between 1867 and 1914.

5.Identify the second remarkable advances that took place between 1930s and 1940s.

6.What were the most important political discontinuities of the second half of the 20thCentury.

7.Identify the three reasons why probabilities of unfolding trends capable of changing the fortunes of nations and reshaping world history are not any easier to assess than those of catastrophic discontinuities.

8.Outline Vaclav Smil’s understanding of the nature and dynamics of the global energy system.

9.Increasing intra and international inequality is seen as the most important destabilizing consequence of globalization. Do you agree?

10.“Human interferences in the global water cycle is a source of more imminent problems, already changed the global nitrogen cycle much more than carbon cycling, and the ultimate consequences of this multifaceted change may even be more intractable than dealing with excessive carbon dioxide.” Do you agree? Why? Why not?

Minimum: 5 pages

Please use simple words and grammar.

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